Footnotes The failure in Australia to perceive native title and land rights as the basis on which to address Indigenous economic and social development has been evident at legal, policy and administrative levels. Legally, the increasingly narrow interpretation of native title by the High Court has, as Noel Pearson has pointed out, stripped native title of much economic meaning or benefit. This chapter raises the question of how native title, land rights, and agreement-making with Indigenous peoples are being handled both at juridical and policy levels in other comparable common law countries. The lens through which these international comparisons are viewed is that of the human right to development and the international discourse on sustainable development outlined in Chapter 1.
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Common features[ edit ] Whether it is due to genetic unity or some other factor such as occasional contact, typologically the Australian languages form a language area or Sprachbundsharing much of their vocabulary and many distinctive phonological features across the entire continent.
A common feature of many Australian languages is that they display so-called avoidance speechspecial speech registers used only in the presence of certain close relatives.
These registers share the phonology and grammar of the standard language, but the lexicon is different and usually very restricted. There are also commonly speech taboos during extended periods of mourning or initiation that have led to numerous Aboriginal sign languages.
For morphosyntactic alignmentmany Australian languages have ergative — absolutive case systems.
These are typically split systems; a widespread pattern is for pronouns or first and second persons to have nominative — accusative case marking and for third person to be ergative—absolutivethough splits between animate and inanimate are also found.
In some languages the persons in between the accusative and ergative inflections such as second person, or third-person A comparative study of australian indigenous may be tripartite: There are also a few languages which employ only nominative—accusative case marking. There is almost never a voicing contrast ; that is, a consonant may sound like a [p] at the beginning of a word, but like a [b] between vowels, and either symbol could be and often is chosen to represent it.
Australia also stands out as being almost entirely free of fricative consonantseven of [h]. Some languages also have three rhoticstypically a flapa trilland an approximant ; that is, like the combined rhotics of English and Spanish. Besides the lack of fricatives, the most striking feature of Australian speech sounds is the large number of places of articulation.
Nearly every language has four places in the coronal region, either phonemically or allophonically. This is accomplished through two variables: There are also bilabialvelar and often palatal consonantsbut a complete absence of uvular or glottal consonants.
Both stops and nasals occur at all six places, and in some languages laterals occur at all four coronal places. A language which displays the full range of stops and laterals is Kalkatunguwhich has labial p, m; "dental" th, nh, lh; "alveolar" t, n, l; "retroflex" rt, rn, rl; "palatal" ty, ny, ly; and velar k, ng.
Wangganguru has all this, as well as three rhotics. Yanyuwa has even more contrasts, with an additional true dorso-palatal series, plus prenasalized consonants at all seven places of articulation, in addition to all four laterals.
A notable exception to the above generalizations is Kalaw Lagaw Yawhich has an inventory more like its Papuan neighbours than the languages of the Australian mainland, including full voice contrasts: Coronal consonants[ edit ] Descriptions of the coronal articulations can be inconsistent.
The alveolar series t, n, l or d, n, l is straightforward: This is very similar to English t, d, n, l, though the Australian t is not aspirated, even in Kalaw Lagaw Ya, despite its other stops being aspirated.
The other apical series is the retroflex, rt, rn, rl or rd, rn, rl. Here the place is further back in the mouth, in the postalveolar or prepalatal region.
The articulation is actually most commonly subapical ; that is, the tongue curls back so that the underside of the tip makes contact. That is, they are true retroflex consonants. It has been suggested that subapical pronunciation is characteristic of more careful speech, while these sounds tend to be apical in rapid speech.
Kalaw Lagaw Ya and many other languages in North Queensland differ from most other Australian languages in not having a retroflexive series. The dental series th, nh, lh are always laminal that is, pronounced by touching with the surface of the tongue just above the tip, called the blade of the tonguebut may be formed in one of three different ways, depending on the language, on the speaker, and on how carefully the speaker pronounces the sound.
These are interdental with the tip of the tongue visible between the teeth, as in th in English; dental with the tip of the tongue down behind the lower teeth, so that the blade is visible between the teeth; and denti-alveolarthat is, with both the tip and the blade making contact with the back of the upper teeth and alveolar ridge, as in French t, d, n, l.
The first tends to be used in careful enunciation, and the last in more rapid speech, while the tongue-down articulation is less common. Finally, the palatal series ty, ny, ly.
The stop is often spelled dj, tj, or j. Here the contact is also laminal, but further back, spanning the alveolar to postalveolar, or the postalveolar to prepalatal regions.
The tip of the tongue is typically down behind the lower teeth. This is similar to the "closed" articulation of Circassian fricatives see Postalveolar consonant. The body of the tongue is raised towards the palate.
This is similar to the "domed" English postalveolar fricative sh. That is, these consonants are not palatal in the IPA sense of the term, and indeed they contrast with true palatals in Yanyuwa.Australian Aborigines - Indigenous Australians.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonization. This report examines Indigenous mortality and life expectancy during the period to , based on evidence from the Enhanced Mortality Database.
In this first-ever anthology of Indigenous science fiction Grace Dillon collects some of the finest examples of the craft with contributions by Native American, First Nations, Aboriginal Australian, and New Zealand Maori authors. Remote Indigenous housing procurement: a comparative study authored by James Davidson, Paul Memmott, Carroll Title Remote Indigenous housing procurement: a comparative study ISBN Format PDF Key Words Remote, Indigenous.
Center for Comparative Native and Indigenous Studies. The Center for Comparative Native and Indigenous Studies (CCNIS) is meant as a platform to bring together scholars and students who work on indigenous issues in a global context.
This study will explore the relationships between remote Indigenous housing procurement and the broader objectives of Indigenous communities. It will contribute to an understanding of the potential longer-term economic, social, health and cultural outcomes of current and future housing policies and housing delivery programs.
It will also aim to address the lack of published comparative.