Stencil Hand stencilsmade by blowing pigment over a hand held against a wall, have been found in Asia and Europe dating from over 35, years ago, and later prehistoric dates in other continents. Stencils may have been used to colour cloth for a very long time; the technique probably reached its peak of sophistication in Katazome and other techniques used on silks for clothes during the Edo period in Japan.
The history of printing Printing, or the process of reproducing text and images, has a long history behind it. This page describes the evolution of print.
It acts as a summary of a more elaborate description which starts here. You can also click on the title of each century to get more in-depth information. There is a separate section on the history of prepress. In other early societies in China and Egypt, small stamps are used to print on cloth.
Seventh century A small book containing the text of the Gospel of John in Latin is added to the grave of Saint Cuthbert. In it is recovered from his coffin in Durham Cathedral, Britain.
The Cuthbert Gospel is currently the oldest European book still in existence. Eleventh century A Chinese man named Pi-Sheng develops type characters from hardened clay, creating the first movable type.
The fairly soft material hampers the success of this technology. Twelfth century Papermaking reaches Europe.
Thirteenth century Type characters cast from metal bronze are developed in China, Japan and Korea. The oldest known book printed using metal type dates back to the year Fifteenth century Even though woodcut had already been in use for centuries in China and Japan, the oldest known European specimen dates from the beginning of the 15th century.
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in which text and images are carved into the surface of a block of wood. The printing parts remain level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed, typically with a knife or chisel.
The wood block is then inked and the substrate pressed against the wood block. The ink that is used is made of lampblack soot from oil lamps mixed with varnish or boiled linseed oil. Books are still rare since they need to be laboriously handwritten by scribes.
The University of Cambridge has one of the largest libraries in Europe — constituting of just books. In Gutenberg begins work on a printing press. It takes him 4 years to finish his wooden press which uses movable metal type.
Among his first publications that get printed on the new device are bibles.3D Printing is a process for making a physical object from a three-dimensional digital model, typically by laying down many successive thin layers of a material.
the rotogravure process - gravure printing is an example of intaglio printing. it uses a depressed or sunken surface for the image. The history of printing starts as early as BCE, when the Persian and Mesopotamian civilizations used cylinder seals to certify documents written in clay. Other early forms include block seals, pottery imprints and cloth printing.
Woodblock printing on paper originated in China around CE. The first printing process to achieve a fully tonal effect is pioneered in the late s by prince Rupert of the Rhine (living at the time in Germany after the defeat of the royalist side in the English Civil War).
Lithography, planographic printing process that makes use of the immiscibility of grease and water..
In the lithographic process, ink is applied to a grease-treated image on the flat printing surface; nonimage (blank) areas, which hold moisture, repel the lithographic ink. AT A GLANCE: In , German inventor Johannes Gutenberg invented a printing press process that, with refinements and increased mechanization, remained the principal means of printing until the late 20th century.