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Henri Carteron held the "extreme view"  that Aristotle's concept of force was basically qualitative,  but other authors reject this. John Philoponus in the Middle Ages and Galileo are said to have shown by experiment that Aristotle's claim that a heavier object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect.
In this system, heavy bodies in steady fall indeed travel faster than light ones whether friction is ignored, or not and they do fall more slowly in a denser medium. Four causes Aristotle argued by analogy with woodwork that a thing takes its form from four causes: His term aitia is traditionally translated as "cause", but it does not always refer to temporal sequence; it might be better translated as "explanation", but the traditional rendering will be employed here.
Thus the material cause of a table is wood. It is not about action. It does not mean that one domino knocks over another domino. It tells us what a thing is, that a thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype.
It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole i. Plainly put, the formal cause is the idea in the mind of the sculptor that brings the sculpture into being. A simple example of the formal cause is the mental image or idea that allows an artist, architect, or engineer to create a drawing.
It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest. Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs.
In the case of two dominoes, when the first is knocked over it causes the second also to fall over. The final cause is the purpose or function that something is supposed to serve. This covers modern ideas of motivating causes, such as volition.
History of optics Aristotle describes experiments in optics using a camera obscura in Problemsbook The apparatus consisted of a dark chamber with a small aperture that let light in.
With it, he saw that whatever shape he made the hole, the sun's image always remained circular. He also noted that increasing the distance between the aperture and the image surface magnified the image. Accident philosophy According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause such as simple necessity.
Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things"from what is spontaneous". There is also more a specific kind of chance, which Aristotle names "luck", that only applies to people's moral choices. History of astronomy In astronomyAristotle refuted Democritus 's claim that the Milky Way was made up of "those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays," pointing out correctly that if "the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then History of geology Aristotle was one of the first people to record any geological observations.
He stated that geological change was too slow to be observed in one person's lifetime. Empirical research Aristotle was the first person to study biology systematically,  and biology forms a large part of his writings.
He spent two years observing and describing the zoology of Lesbos and the surrounding seas, including in particular the Pyrrha lagoon in the centre of Lesbos. He describes the catfishelectric rayand frogfish in detail, as well as cephalopods such as the octopus and paper nautilus.
His description of the hectocotyl arm of cephalopods, used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until the 19th century. For Aristotle, accidents, like heat waves in winter, must be considered distinct from natural causes. He was thus critical of Empedocles's materialist theory of a "survival of the fittest" origin of living things and their organs, and ridiculed the idea that accidents could lead to orderly results.
He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: Aristotle did not do experiments in the modern sense. It does not result in the same certainty as experimental science, but it sets out testable hypotheses and constructs a narrative explanation of what is observed.
In this sense, Aristotle's biology is scientific.Galileo Galilei () Today Galileo is a famous and romantic name. We have all been taught the story of his heroic fight in the name of science against the intractable ignorance of .
Aristotle’s Philosophy (Summary) share. Contents. 1 Aristotle, the philosopher of the rationality (city and individuals) 2 Aristotle and Logic; 3 Aristotle and Physics: Rhetoric, Poetics. Researcher and professor at the time, Aristotle has systematized all knowledge of his time.
It’s his brilliant mind that has shaped the logical. Dec 20, · ARISTOTLE: Rhetoric - FULL AudioBook - Classical Philosophy of Ancient Greece The Rhetoric was developed by Aristotle during two periods when he was in .
Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Stagira, Macedonia (a city in Northern Greece) in BC. Before Aristotle, there were two ways of evaluating arguments. The first was done by the sophists, teachers of rhetoric, who believed the most important thing was for an argument to be persuasive i.e.
sound good. In response to this. Rhetoric (elements of forensic and political debate) For a discussion of Aristotle's views on biology, see the article Aristotle's Biology.
The author of this article is anonymous. The IEP is actively seeking an author who will write a replacement article. Brief Overview.
Aristotle was born in B.C. in a small town called Stagira. His parents died when he was still young, and he was raised as an orphan. Poetics, and Rhetoric. With the exception of Aristotle's Rhetoric, all of these works continue to be studied in colleges today, not only for historical reasons but as the groundwork of its.