It identifies each source you consulted in preparing your paper, the specific information you used, and where in the source that the information was found. G53 The numbers in [ ] refer to the appropriate chapters in the handbook. Generally, a parenthetical citation includes the author's last name and the page number s of the information used: Smith For example, There is a significant amount of dating violence among teens in Hawaii Gordon D1.
Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for individual journals. If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal. That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature.
A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussionwhenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e. Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information. Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly.
The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. Typically, only the last name of the author s and the year of publication are given,e.
Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles.
The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble.
For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al.
When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. If you want reference a paper found in another article, do so as follows: Driblickin Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e. Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e.
Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.
Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review. When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources:Basically, these books follow the same conventions as any other, except that you include the editor’s name in the reference.
It’s only when an edited volume doesn’t have an overall author (e.g. a collection of essays) that you need to treat the editor as the author.
Footnotes and Endnotes. MLA Footnotes and Endnotes are used to give credit to sources of any material borrowed, summarized or paraphrased.
They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Works Cited, References, or Bibliography section.. What is a footnote: The term ‘footnote’ refers to ancillary notes added to the end of a page. EasyBib reference guide to book citation in APA format.
Citation Guides; Title Page Maker ; EasyBib PRO; About Us Some pro accounts may receive partial refunds - please visit ashio-midori.com to start a refund ticket.
I agree I do not agree. We cite according to the 8th edition of MLA, 6th edition of APA, and 16th edition of Chicago. APA Style Reference List.
Each quote cited in the APA book review must correspond to a source in a reference list at the end of the article. In a book review, this usually consists of only one book. According to APA This handout summarizes the main points a student at Cambridge College will need to write in- text and reference citations for research papers including the Capstone, ILP, and IRP.
In the citation-sequence system, sources are numbered by order of reference so that the first reference cited in the paper is 1, the second 2, and so on.
In citation-name, the sources are numbered alphabetically so that 1 refers to the first source in an alphabetical list, 2 refers to the second source in that list, and so on.