Latin-alphabet handwriting To understand the development of modern Western calligraphy it is important to survey historical writing styles—some of which profoundly influenced subsequent work—as well as how the materials of writing have been used.
In the wider sense, an alphabet is a script that is segmental at the phoneme level—that is, it has separate glyphs for individual sounds and not for larger units such as syllables or words.
In the narrower sense, some scholars distinguish "true" alphabets from two other types of segmental script, abjads and abugidas. These three differ from each other in the way they treat vowels: In alphabets in the narrow sense, on the other hand, consonants and vowels are written as independent letters.
Examples of present-day abjads are the Arabic and Hebrew scripts ; true alphabets include LatinCyrillic, and Korean hangul ; and abugidas are used to write TigrinyaAmharicHindiand Thai. The Canadian Aboriginal syllabics are also an abugida rather than a syllabary as their name would imply, since each glyph stands for a consonant that is modified by rotation to represent the following vowel.
In a true syllabary, each consonant-vowel combination would be represented by a separate glyph. All three types may be augmented with syllabic glyphs.
These are the only time vowels are indicated. The boundaries between the three types of segmental scripts are not always clear-cut. For example, Sorani Kurdish is written in the Arabic scriptwhich is normally an abjad.
However, in Kurdish, writing the vowels is mandatory, and full letters are used, so the script is a true alphabet. Other languages may use a Semitic abjad with mandatory vowel diacritics, effectively making them abugidas.
On the other hand, the Phagspa script of the Mongol Empire was based closely on the Tibetan abugidabut all vowel marks were written after the preceding consonant rather than as diacritic marks.
Although short a was not written, as in the Indic abugidas, one could argue that the linear arrangement made this a true alphabet. Conversely, the vowel marks of the Tigrinya abugida and the Amharic abugida ironically, the original source of the term "abugida" have been so completely assimilated into their consonants that the modifications are no longer systematic and have to be learned as a syllabary rather than as a segmental script.
Even more extreme, the Pahlavi abjad eventually became logographic. Ge'ez Script of Ethiopia and Eritrea Thus the primary classification of alphabets reflects how they treat vowels. For tonal languagesfurther classification can be based on their treatment of tone, though names do not yet exist to distinguish the various types.
Some alphabets disregard tone entirely, especially when it does not carry a heavy functional load, as in Somali and many other languages of Africa and the Americas. Such scripts are to tone what abjads are to vowels.
Most commonly, tones are indicated with diacritics, the way vowels are treated in abugidas. This is the case for Vietnamese a true alphabet and Thai an abugida.
In Thai, tone is determined primarily by the choice of consonant, with diacritics for disambiguation. In the Pollard scriptan abugida, vowels are indicated by diacritics, but the placement of the diacritic relative to the consonant is modified to indicate the tone.
More rarely, a script may have separate letters for tones, as is the case for Hmong and Zhuang. For most of these scripts, regardless of whether letters or diacritics are used, the most common tone is not marked, just as the most common vowel is not marked in Indic abugidas; in Zhuyin not only is one of the tones unmarked, but there is a diacritic to indicate lack of tone, like the virama of Indic.
The number of letters in an alphabet can be quite small. The Book Pahlavi script, an abjad, had only twelve letters at one point, and may have had even fewer later on.
Today the Rotokas alphabet has only twelve letters. However, Hawaiian Braille has only 13 letters. While Rotokas has a small alphabet because it has few phonemes to represent just elevenBook Pahlavi was small because many letters had been conflated—that is, the graphic distinctions had been lost over time, and diacritics were not developed to compensate for this as they were in Arabicanother script that lost many of its distinct letter shapes.
For example, a comma-shaped letter represented g, d, y, k, or j. However, such apparent simplifications can perversely make a script more complicated.
In later Pahlavi papyriup to half of the remaining graphic distinctions of these twelve letters were lost, and the script could no longer be read as a sequence of letters at all, but instead each word had to be learned as a whole—that is, they had become logograms as in Egyptian Demotic.
Circles containing the GreekCyrillic and Latin alphabets, which share many of the same lettersalthough they have different pronunciations The largest segmental script is probably an abugida, Devanagari.
The Hindi alphabet must represent both Sanskrit and modern vocabulary, and so has been expanded to 58 with the khutma letters letters with a dot added to represent sounds from Persian and English. Thai has a total of 59 symbols, consisting of 44 consonants, 13 vowels and 2 syllabics, not including 4 diacritics for tone marks and one for vowel length.
The largest known abjad is Sindhiwith 51 letters. The largest alphabets in the narrow sense include Kabardian and Abkhaz for Cyrillicwith 58 and 56 letters, respectively, and Slovak for the Latin scriptwith The Georgian alphabet Georgian:An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that represent the phonemes (basic significant sounds) of any spoken language it is used to write.
This is in contrast to other types of writing systems, such as syllabaries (in which each character represents a syllable) and logographic systems (in which each character represents a word, morpheme, or semantic unit).
Edit Article How to Have Beautiful Writing. In this Article: Article Summary Improving Your Basic Penmanship Writing More Beautiful Cursive Learning Basic Calligraphy Community Q&A Handwriting can seem like an ancient relic in our modern world; some even claim that teaching cursive writing in schools is “obsolete” and a “waste of time.”.
First tracing from the guide sheet and then freehand using the 1 inch lines and referring to Calligradoodles , cups of tea and lots of chat, time was flying and skills increasing.
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