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In addition, recent ground-breaking research suggests the income from these tax credits leads to benefits at virtually every stage of life. For instance, research indicates that children in families receiving the tax credits do better in school, are likelier to attend college, and can be expected to earn more as adults.
Numerous studies show that working-family tax credits boost work effort. The EITC expansions of the s contributed as much to the subsequent increases in work among single mothers and female heads of households as the welfare changes of that period, extensive research has found.
And, by boosting the employment and earnings of working-age women, the EITC boosts the size of the Social Security retirement benefits they ultimately will receive. In addition, the research shows that by boosting the employment of single mothers, the EITC reduces the number of female-headed households receiving cash welfare assistance.
The EITC may also improve the health of infants and mothers, research indicates. Infants born to mothers who could receive the largest EITC increases in the s had the greatest improvements in such birth indicators as low-weight births and premature births. Moreover, research suggests that income from the EITC and CTC leads to improved educational outcomes for young children in low-income households.
Children whose families receive more income from refundable tax credits do better in school, are likelier to attend college, and likely earn more as adults; they also are likelier to avoid the early onset of disabilities and other illnesses associated with child poverty, which further enhances their earnings ability as adults, some research suggests.
These working-family tax credits lifted 9. The magnitude of these effects is large: Millions of families are brought above the poverty line, and estimates of the effects on children indicate that this may have extremely important effects on the intergenerational transmission of poverty as well.
Taking all of the evidence together, the EITC appears to benefit recipients — and especially their children — substantially.
To claim the credit, a taxpayer must have earnings from a job. The credit rises with earned income until reaching a maximum which varies by the number of qualified children and then phases out as income rises further. Research strongly suggests that low-income families do not understand how much of their tax refund comes from the EITC or the CTC, but they do understand that if they work they can qualify for significant tax-based benefits.
The EITC is particularly effective at encouraging work among single mothers working for low wages. Single mothers are the group most likely to be eligible for the EITC because they tend to have low earnings and qualifying children.
As Figure 1 shows, single mothers experienced a marked increase in paid employment following the EITC expansions of the early s, relative to married women and single women without children.
In addition, women who were eligible to benefit the most from those EITC expansions apparently had higher wage growth in later years than other similarly situated women.
The EITC expansions of the s induced more than a half a million families to move from cash welfare assistance to work, research shows. Higher Social Security benefits, in turn, reduce the extent and severity of poverty among seniors.
Changes in health insurance coverage did not seem to be a primary explanation for these improved health outcomes.
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