Side effects[ edit ] In women, the most common adverse effects of MPA are acne, changes in menstrual flow, drowsiness, and can cause birth defects if taken by pregnant women. Other common side effects include breast tendernessincreased facial hair, decreased scalp hair, difficulty falling or remaining asleep, stomach pain, and weight loss or gain. In the first months of use "irregular or unpredictable bleeding or spotting, or, rarely, heavy or continuous bleeding" was reported. Adverse effects peak at five weeks, and are reduced with lower doses.
By WhatGo - 9: It is used as birth control and as part of hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms.
It is also used to treat endometriosis, abnormal uterine bleeding, abnormal sexuality in males, and certain types of cancer. It is used by mouth or injection into a muscle or under the skin. Common side effects include no periods, abdominal pain, headaches, and anxiety.
Other serious side effects include bone loss, blood clots, allergic reactions, depression, and liver problems. Use is not recommended during pregnancy as it may harm the baby.
It works by decreasing the body's release of gonadotropins. Medroxyprogesterone acetate was patented and came into medical use in It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.
The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0. MPA is also used as a treatment for endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and amenorrhea.
MPA, along with other progestins were developed to allow the hormones to be taken orally, as progesterone the hormone made by the human body could not be taken orally before the process of micronization was developed. In males, MPA has been used to control inappropriate sexual behavior to chemically castrate convicted sex offenders.
MPA is an extremely effective contraceptive when used with relatively high doses to prevent ovulation. Though not used as a treatment for epilepsy, MPA has been found to reduce the frequency of seizures and does not interact with anti-epileptic medications.
MPA does not interfere with blood clotting and appears to improve blood parameters for women with sickle cell anemia. Similarly, MPA does not appear to affect liver metabolism, and may improve primary biliary cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis.
Women taking MPA may experience spotting shortly after starting the medication but is not usually serious enough to require medical intervention. With longer use amenorrhoea can occur as can irregular menstruation which is a major source of dissatisfaction, though both can result in improvements with iron deficiency and risk of pelvic inflammatory disease and often do not result in discontinuing the medication.
MPA is also prescribed in combination with an estrogen to prevent endometrial hyperplasia in post-menopausal women who are undergoing hormone replacement therapy. MPA has also been prescribed in hormone replacement therapy for male-to-female transgender individuals due to its progestogenic and antigonadotropic effects.The primary contraceptive effect of progestins involves the inhibition of gonadotropin secretion (suppression of the midcycle surge of luteinizing hormone, .
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