Neither side used a rose as its sole symbol. The Wars of the Roses take their name from the color of the roses—red for Lancaster and white for York—that each house supposedly used as their emblem. This legend took root after William Shakespeare and others wrote about it, but most modern historians maintain that neither side was identified solely by a floral symbol. The white rose was just one of many badges used by the Yorks, and the red rose of Lancaster was likely not adopted until the s, when the conflict was nearly over.
Wars of the Roses came into common use in the 19th century after the publication in of Anne of Geierstein by Sir Walter Scott. The lands and offices attached to the Duchy of Lancaster were mainly in GloucestershireNorth WalesCheshireand ironically in Yorkshirewhile the estates and castles of the Duke of York were spread throughout England and Wales, many in the Welsh Marches.
In the absence of a direct heir, there were two rival branches with claims to the throne should Henry die without issue, being the Beaufort familyled by Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somersetand the House of Yorkheaded by Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York.
Byissues had come to a head: A Great Council of nobles was called, and through shrewd political machinations, Richard had himself declared Lord Protector and chief regent during the mental incapacity of Henry. In the interlude, Margaret gave birth to a healthy son and heir, Edward.
Several prominent Lancastrians died at the hands of the Yorkists. Henry was again imprisoned, and Richard of York resumed his role as Lord Protector.
Fighting resumed more violently in Margaret and the remaining Lancastrian nobles gathered their army in the north of England.
When York moved north to engage them, he and his second son Edmund were killed at the Battle of Wakefield in December The Lancastrian army advanced south and released Henry at the Second Battle of St Albansbut failed to occupy Londonand subsequently retreated to the north.
He gathered the Yorkist armies and won a crushing victory at the Battle of Towton in March After Lancastrian revolts in the north were suppressed inHenry was captured once again and placed in the Tower of London.
A near-contemporary Flemish picture of the Battle of Barnet in Furious, Warwick tried first to supplant Edward with his younger brother George, Duke of Clarenceestablishing the alliance by marriage to his daughter, Isabel Neville.
When that plan failed, due to lack of support from ParliamentWarwick sailed to France with his family and made an alliance with the former Lancastrian Queen, Margaret of Anjouto restore Henry VI to the throne.
This resulted in two years of rapid changes of fortune, before Edward IV once again won complete victories at Barnet 14 Aprilwhere Warwick was killed, and Tewkesbury 4 May where the Lancastrian heir, Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales was killed, or perhaps executed after the battle.
Queen Margaret was escorted to London as a prisoner and Henry was murdered in the Tower of London several days later, ending the direct Lancastrian line of succession. A period of comparative peace followed, ending with the unexpected death of King Edward in Yorkist revolts, directed by John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln and others, flared up in under the banner of the pretender Lambert Simnel —who claimed he was Edward, Earl of Warwick son of George of Clarenceresulting in the last pitched battles.
Though most surviving descendants of Richard of York were imprisoned, sporadic rebellions continued untilwhen Perkin Warbeckwho claimed he was the younger brother of Edward Vone of the two disappeared Princes in the Towerwas imprisoned and later executed.
Following the White Ship disaster, England entered a period of prolonged instability known as The Anarchy.
However, following the ascension of Henry of Anjou to the throne in as Henry IIthe crown passed from father to son or brother to brother with little difficulty until The so-called Wars of the Roses was the struggle between the Yorkist and Lancastrian descendants of Edward III for control of the throne and of local government.
The origins of the conflict have been the subject of much debate. The War of the Roses history is a story of Tudor monarchs desperately attempting to unite a faction behind them large enough to unite the fledging realm of England.
Henry VII ( – ) was the first Tudor monarch. The War of the Roses history is a story of Tudor monarchs desperately attempting to unite a faction behind them large enough to unite the fledging realm of England. Henry VII . The name "Wars of the Roses" refers to the heraldic badges associated with two rival branches of the same royal house, the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster.
Wars of the Roses came into common use in the 19th century after the publication in of Anne of Geierstein by Sir Walter Scott.
In the Wars of the Roses, most of the fighting occurred in England, and thus the loss of life and property was much greater for English citizens. It was a struggle to claim the throne between the families descended from Edward III and the families descended from Henry IV.
In the opening battle of England’s War of the Roses, the Yorkists defeat King Henry VI’s Lancastrian forces at St. Albans, 20 miles northwest of London.