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This relationship undoubtably reflects the fact that choice increases awareness, if for no reason other than people will be exposed to the brands they choose more often than brands they leave on the shelf.
Of greater interest is the proposition that brand awareness plays some causal role in the choice process. This is implied by the classic hierarchy of effects model of advertising effectiveness Lavidge and Steiner ; Palda as well as the low involvement hierarchy proposed by Ray, Sawyer, Rothschild, Roger, and Reed In this paper we explore the theoretical and empirical bases of this proposition.
The Brand Familiarity Construct In order to facilitate the present discussion, we will adopt a very particular working definition of brand familiarity and examine its viability.
Brand familiarity is a unidimensional construct that is directly related to the amount of time that has been spent processing information about the brand, regardless of the type or content of the processing that was involved.
Thus, brand familiarity is the most rudimentary form of consumer knowledge. Moreover, this definition specifically assumes that brand familiarity is context-independent and is affected in more or less the same way by advertising exposures, purchase behavior, and product consumption or usage.
This seems to be the simplest definition possible and is therefore a reasonable starting point for our investigation. In the remainder of this paper we examine two principal ways in which brand familiarity might affect brand choice: The pool of alternatives has been referred to as an evoked or consideration set Howard and Sheth ; Urban Evidence suggests that while consumers may have knowledge of a large number of brands in a product class, they may consider only a few of these for purchase on any particular occasion Bettman and Park ; Lussier and Olshavsky The composition of such an evoked set has important influences on subsequent probabilities of brand choice.
First, a brand that is not considered cannot be chosen. Further, probability of choice is a function of both the number and nature of the other brands included in the evoked set e. It is, therefore, important to examine in some detail factors that determine inclusion of a brand in the consumer's evoked set.
Brands can be included in an evoked set either by being recognized in the environment in the case of a stimulus-based choice or by being recalled from memory in the case of memory-based choice; Bettman ; Lynch and Srull In both instances, the cues available to the consumer could determine the set of brands considered for choice.
The traditional role ascribed to brand familiarity in such instances may be summarized in the following propositions: In stimulus-based choice situations, brand familiarity enables quicker and easier perceptual identification of a brand and, therefore, facilitates inclusion in the evoked set.
In memory-based choice situations, brand familiarity increases the probability of a brand being recalled and, therefore, facilitates inclusion in the evoked set.
In the following sections we shall examine these propositions in greater detail.
Brand Recognition Simple item familiarity, or strength, is no longer widely accepted as an explanation of recognition in the typical list learning tasks frequently studied by psychologists see Crowderch. However, it can be argued that this is because the task requires items to be discriminated on the basis of the context at the time of encoding i.
This task does not seem especially relevant for determining which brands will be included in a stimulus-based evoked set.This difference is vividly illustrated right on my own street, where my neighbors each make several short car trips around our tiny city each day, and my wife and I make a smaller number by bike.
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Mar 13, · A researcher must know two important things before the selection of research/thesis topic. The researcher must know the sources of data collection and the .