Wayne rooney essay

He currently plays for the English premier a fusion bludgeon Manchester join and the England internal team up.

Wayne rooney essay

Autonomous Cognitive This is the initial stage of learning and is essential if the learner is to process successful through the other stages and is to move a stage where the skill can be performed.

The cognitive stage involves formation of a mental picture of a skill. The most efficient way is from a demonstration, which allows them to see the key requirements and to work through the performance mentally. Visual guidance is one of the best ways to make others understand, and so that the person learning can see the correct method to perform the skill.

They will then attempt to perform. The cognitive stage initially concentrates more on the skill, rather than the game. There is a lack of control and consistency. Trial and error is also a key way to learn.

Wayne rooney essay

Reinforcement of this can be by giving positive feedback. Questions will arise when learning skills of a sport if the skill is not correctly learnt.

The learner will be confronted with some very specific, cognitively oriented problems. It is important that the coach explains very thoroughly what is required of each Wayne rooney essay.

Associative Learning at the associative stage means that the skill is becoming more consistent, but there are still some errors. The simple element of the skill has been grasped however the performer still refers back to the mental picture.

This means that the performer will begin to enjoy the sport. Verbal guidance is essential as it is used in the associative stage. Some people never exceed this phase.

An example of this is a semi-professional shot-put thrower. Some performers return to the cognitive stage to refer to the mental image of the skill. Also, some professional players return from autonomous stage to the associative stage if they have an injury — they need to work hard and rise up to the expected standard of an autonomous performer.

Autonomous Learning at the autonomous stage is where the skill is done without conscious thought. The movements of the performer are fluent, consistent and athletically pleasing.

There is an advanced stage of learning where the elements of the skill have become part of long term memory and are automatically produced in response to a an appropriate stimulus. The skill is automatic. The attention of the performer focuses on the next movement, for example tactics.

Consistent practise is required to reinforce being at the autonomous stage. In tennis for example a player would be able to perform a serve whilst contemplating what their opponent will do next, rather than being focusing on the technical side of the serve.

Not all performers reach the autonomous stage in all skills.

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For those who do, if practise is not maintained revision to the associative stage will occur. Closed skills such as throwing events can be finely tuned so that a high level of performance can be produced. Knapp is suggesting that once something is learnt, it remains with us, thus supporting the statement: Learning in sport involves the development of skills through practice, hence the saying: These stages are hierarchal, in other words each stage must be passed through before the next one is achieved.

Ivan Pavlov was a scientist who conducted experiments on the response of dogs. He taught them that when a bell was rung, the dogs would learn to understand that it was time to eat. This approach can be used to mentally prepare the athlete for the sport. However in order to achieve this, the player would need to gradually progress to that level of conditioned stimulus.

A PEP would help improve the skill of the performer, and help the learner to enhance their performance. This way the performer can test to see how long it takes him to master one specific skill.

As a trainer I would encourage the performer and give feedback and give a clear understanding to the performer what they are doing right and wrong. I would ensure that the performer practices the skill consistently and monitor any improvements in their ability.

In a professional football match I would help keep the players to the standard that is required by making them do drills as a team. Warm-ups are essential as they prevent muscles getting damaged.

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